Operating the Apple 1

Corey & Jeremy Cohen lovingly built the "Mimeo-1" Apple 1 replica.
Some liberties were taken: the Apple 2 keyboard that cannot generate the underscore/back-arrow required for backspace.

Mike Willegal's Apple 1 Mimeo Project is an absolutely faithful reproduction of the Apple 1, with
Vince Briel's Replica 1 clone of the Apple I works the same but does not look the same.

what buttons to press and NOT to press

Each program has a unique prompt
\ for the monitor
* for the cassette tape ROM
> for BASIC

There are 2 special keys.

RESET is just that: it resets the CPU.
Pressing it while a program's running will certainly halt it and return you to the monitor's \ prompt.

CLEAR clears only the display.
Pressing that while a program's running will clear the screen but may leave it in an inconsistant state where the display keeps going to the wrong location. So press it again and hope you find a spot where things re-sync!

Internally, there are 2 sections to the Apple 1.
The video display runs from its own memory using circuitry similar to Don Lancaster's TV Typewriter.
Just like today's PC: the graphic card is an independent system with its own RAM and controller
whereas the CPU has its own RAM running concurrently.

starting up

When the machine's powered up, the display is usually filled with random characters.
Press <clear> to clear the display,
then <reset> to start the WOZ monitor, giving the \ prompt.

\  the WOZ monitor

Using only a 256 BYTE ROM, the monitor replaces the front panel of toggle switches and LEDs,
allowing one to display RAM, enter data into RAM and jump to an address to start program execution.
Pressing ANY key (or RESET) stops execution, returning to the "\" prompt.

*  the cassette tape ROM

The cassette tape interface has a 256 byte rom at address C100.
so C100R runs that program, giving the "*" prompt.

It has 2 commands: The range of addresses is specified as <start-address>.<end-address>R (or W).
A period separates the addresses.
Multiple reads or writes are allowed on one line

For example:
E000.EFFFR reads from a tape, loading into addresses E000 thru EFFF
004A.00FFR0300.0FFFR reads a tape, loading into addresses 4A thru FF and 300 thru FFF

>  loading BASIC

loading a BASIC program from cassette

See Also: